Because of its complex topography, Peru hosts a wide variety of climates, ranging from hot and dry on the Pacific coast to temperate in the Andean valleys, cold in the highlands, and hot and humid in the Amazon. Maximum temperatures average up to 36° C in the Amazon and on the coast, and up to 24° C in the highlands. Minimum average values are around 20° C in the low areas and can be as low as –18°C in the Andes. Rainfall varies widely, too. Most of the coast accumulates less than 200 mm annually, and in some areas almost no rain is registered at all. On the other hand, the Amazon receives abundant precipitation of up to 2,800 mm per year on average.
As reflected in the “United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR), 2013. Climate Risk Management for Agriculture in Peru: Focus on the Regions of Junín and Piura. New York, NY: UNDP BCPR”, important deviations from the average climate have been observed in Peru, including in the form of climate hazards such as droughts, cold spells and floods. Typical intra‐annual climate patterns involving significant variation in temperatures and rainfall are observed in all areas of Peru. Interannual climate variability in Peru has largely been driven by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a climate pattern characterized by changes in ocean surface temperatures and pressure in the tropical eastern Pacific.
Peru has taken and is exploring important measures in terms of mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. For instance, the country has attempted to promote educational opportunities for adults and children which incorporate a culture of prevention. Despite the national efforts, preparedness for response is still a very weak topic that needs to be urgently addressed by taking additional measures for risk reduction and preparedness of communities at risk. The humanitarian system needs an urgent shift of paradigms towards humanitarian preparedness by ensuring early warning and following early action. To this end, prompt action must be lined up and short‐term funding mechanisms for highly efficient preparedness actions must be developed to improve the humanitarian reaction to forecast related risks.